The accurate identification of fish 'ear-bones', known as otoliths, is essential to determine the fish prey of marine and terrestrial predators. Fish otoliths are species-specific when combining size, shape and surface features, and can remain undigested for long periods. As a result, they can indicate which fish make up the diet of various predators, including cephalopod, seabird, marine mammal and fish species. Such studies are crucial for understanding marine ecosystems, and trophodynamics in particular. Increasingly, these methods are being used to understand the diet of some terrestrial predators, also extending to that of humans in archaelogical studies.
Essay from the year 2003 in the subject History - Australia, Oceania, grade: HD-, James Cook University (James Cook University), course: Effective Writing, language: English, abstract: In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, explorers from several European nations discovered various parts of Australia, but initially no nation put forward concrete proposals for either the use or the settlement of the land. Dutch explorers first discovered Australia in 1606, but they considered it as being of no economic value to their mother country. British explorers were more fortunate when, in 1768, Lieutenant James Cook, the appointed Commander of His Majesty's ship Endeavour, discovered the more inhabitable east coast of Australia. In 1770, the British government claimed the eastern half of Australia for the British realm and King George III named it New South Wales. At this time, no plans were put forward for the settlement of British people in Australia, or for any other use of the land - it became just another part of the Empire. However, in the years following Captain Cook's discovery, the idea of the newly found land in the far distance began to attract the British government, including the possible use of Australia for convict deportation. Eventually, the first settlement was a penal one and this is now generally considered to be the main reason for settlement, but the analysis of other factors such as non-convict settlers, economic exploitation of the land, empire building, and the use for strategic military purposes, suggests that convict deportation might have been initially just a convenient solution for a social problem: the disposal of the growing number of convicts that were crowded in hulks along the River Thames. Subsequent naval explorations came to suggest substantial benefits for safeguarding British interests: advantages in the competition for trade with Asia and, most importantly, the strengthening of the British Empire.
The tropical north of Australia covers almost half of the countrys total land area, is occupied by no more than about 5% of the total population, and yet has been estimated to account for close to 70% of the countrys potential freshwater resources. The region experiences strong climatic variability, both spatially and seasonally, with large areas subject to long dry periods interspersed by short periods of torrential rain. This book presents an overview of the freshwater resources of a region that has undergone a period of intense development (agricultural, industrial and social) over recent decades and for which is predicted a continuing period of development into the future. The author describes how the availability of surface, groundwater and stored freshwater, in terms of both quantity and quality, will continue to be the major factor influencing such development. It will also highlight how the emphasis on ensuring year-round water supply has, in recent decades, shifted to one of management to ensure sustainability of this vital resource and maintenance of the ecological health of what is known to be a fragile ecosystem. This book draws on the authors 25+ years of experience as a professional biologist living and working (as a teacher/researcher) in the tropical north of Australia, a region which in light of strengthening trade and other links between Australia and its neighbouring south-east Asian countries, is likely to become of increasing international significance in the future.
William Brown escaped from slavery as a child. Brown was still considered a slave at the time of this novel's publication. Brown was a pioneer in several different literary genres, including travel and fiction. Clotel or the President's Daughter has been considered the first African-American novel. It was published in London in 1853. Brown hoped that his work would influence the British to help with the abolitionist movement in the United States. Four versions of Clotel, published between 1853 and 1867 include Clotel; or the President's Daughter: a Narrative of Slave Life in the United States, London, Partridge & Oakey, 1953; Miralda; or, The Beautiful Quadroon. A Romance of American Slavery, Founded on Fact, In Sixteen Installments, New York. Weekly Anglo African, December 1, 1860 to March 16, 1861; Clotelle: A Tale of the Southern States, Boston: J. Redpath, 1864; Clotelle; or The Colored Heroine, A Tale of the Southern States, Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1867
On the 9th August 2013 the Australian cricket team will step onto the Emirates Durham International Cricket Ground for a history making Ashes Test - the first ever on Durham soil. However there is a already a solid historical link between Australia and the county and nowhere is this more obvious than in ten matches arranged between Australia and a variety of sides in Sunderland between 1878 and 1977. Sports historian and archivist Keith Gregson has unearthed some remarkable documents and photographs in order to tell the tale of these games as part of the celebrations for this ground-breaking sporting event.
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